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3D Video - Multiple systems being developed

In addition to the 3D projection systems for cinemas, a number of different 3D systems have been developed for home TV broadcasting use and also for professional use - in amusement facilities, for in-store displays, for CG/3D production work, and for medical applications. Depending on future technical and market developments, the potential applications for 3D could expand greatly in the years ahead.

Current 3D systems used for TV broadcasting

3D systems for TV broadcasting are of two types, depending on whether special glasses are required or not. The former group consists of two sub-categories, which are being developed independently: one simultaneously overlays left and right images, while the other displays them alternately.

Current 3D systems used for TV broadcasting

Viewer

Method

Technology

Features

Glasses

Passive type (polarizing filter)

Xpol®

  •  3D optical filter is applied to the display surface; viewer wears polarizing glasses

  •  Flicker-free

  •  Full-colour display

  •  No need for circuitry

  •  Polarizing glasses are cheap

  •  No need to change source equipment or broadcasting formats

Anaglyph (red/blue)

  •  OK with standard colour monitor

  •  Glasses are cheap

ColorCode 3-D (amber/blue)

  •  OK with standard colour monitor

  •  Glasses are cheap

Checkerboard

  •  1920/60i stream

  •  To combine left and right images, the picture is recorded with each frame made up of a checkerboard pattern of left and right pixels.

  •  No need to change standards for source equipment, signal transmission, etc.

Active type (electronic shutters)

Full HD x 2 channels frame sequential

  •  1920/60i stream

  •  1080/60p images transmitted for both left and right

  •  High picture quality

  •  Using image for just one side results in regular 2D picture

Naked eye

Parallax barrier

  •  LCD for picture display is combined with a second LCD that produces a vertical barrier (slits)

Lenticular

  •  The light passing through an LCD panel is controlled with a lenticular lens in the direction of travel so as to show different images to left and right eyes

Several recording systems being developed

When it comes to 3D recording, manufacturers employ different technologies that reflect different approaches to issues of picture quality and cost, depending on whether the target is consumer or professional use.

• LR independent

  •  MPEG2 and H.264 are already established standards.

  •  AVC & MVC offer 1.5~2.0 times encoding capacity.

• Side-by-side

  •  Uses existing transmission channel bandwidth.

  •  The picture signals for left and right eyes are compressed by 1/2 horizontally and then combined in a side-by-side format.

  •  Since this can be transmitted in the same way as a conventional TV signal, it is widely used for creating 3D content and for TV broadcasting. In Japan, the 3D broadcasts on the BS11 satellite channel are of this type.

• Frame (field) sequential

  •  Noticeable flicker.

  •  Uses existing transmission channel bandwidth.

• Above-below

  •  Requires frame memory.

  •  Uses existing transmission channel bandwidth.

• Line-by-line

  •  The picture signals for left and right eyes are interleaved in alternate lines.

  •  Widely used for computers equipped with polarizing 3D LCD monitors.

• Checkerboard

  •  Filter degrades diagonal characteristics, but resolution can be increased through wobulation (shifting pixels).

  •  High compatibility with the Smooth Picture technology (DLP wobulation) used to increase resolution for projectors.

Combining recording & display technologies

• Viewing with Xpol®circular polarizing system

3D content recorded using the side-by-side format is converted to line-by-line format inside the TV (or by separate converter) for viewing with Xpol® filter and circular polarizing glasses. This is the same as for the JVC display demonstration.

• Viewing with checkerboard system

<LCD television>3D content recorded using the checkerboard format is converted to line-by-line format inside the TV (or by separate converter) for viewing with Xpol® filter and circular polarizing glasses.

<Plasma television>3D content recorded using the checkerboard format is converted to frame (field) sequential format inside the TV (or by a separate converter) for viewing with shutter-type (active) glasses.

• Viewing full HD x 2 channels frame sequential format

24p or 60i footage is recorded using the full HD x 2 channels frame sequential format. The TV performs I/P conversion and displays at 120p (60p for left, 60p for right); active glasses are used for viewing.

* Xpol® is a registered trademark of Arisawa Manufacturing.

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